BAD POWERPOINT: IN DEFENSE OF POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS
What you will learn in this post
Bad PowerPoint has a bad rep
PowerPoint... is evil.
Author of The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint
PowerPoint makes us stupid.
General James N. Mattis
US Marine Corps
If 3% of the Swiss electorate vote for the party, for the first time in history a deputy of the Anti-PowerPoint-Party will be sitting in a European national parliament
Founder, Anti PowerPoint Party
PowerPoint could be the most powerful tool on your computer. But it’s not. Countless innovations fail because their champions use PowerPoint the way Microsoft wants them to, instead of the right way.
'Death by PowerPoint' they cry, through the halls of America's largest corporations.
How does one defend the indefensible?
Here is the plan:
Our bad PowerPoint presentation failures are not the fault of poor, innocent PowerPoint. Instead, our business presentations fail for three fundamental reasons (each user error):
Using PowerPoint as if it was a process (it is a tool)
Mistakenly preparing for speeches, not McKinsey-style 'sit-down' business presentation updates
Focusing our preparation on style, not substance
Constructing the case for the prosecution
How do they hate thee?
Let me count the ways...
Witness A: Edward Tufte
Edward Tufte identifies key weaknesses of PowerPoint:
- Cognitive style. Presenter-focused, not content or audience focused.
- Low resolution. Little info per slide - so more slides are needed. Data graphics are weak: average of 12 numbers per graphic.
- Bullets. Bullet lists can show only 3 logical flows: sequence; priority; or membership. Multivariate models with feedback and simultaneity can't be listed. This encourages lazy thinking, generic ideas and ignores critical relationships and assumptions.
In fact Tuft implicates PowerPoint in the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster.
Witness B: Peter Norvig
Peter Norvig's hilarious Gettysburg PowerPoint makes the case for PowerPoint sucking the soul out of eloquence.
Additional witnesses have piled on to point out the limitations of:
- Overly simplistic business charts
- A poor outliner which drives ideas to be arranged in unnecessarily deep hierarchies
- Poor typography and chart layout tools
- Clip art (!)
- Overly rigid enforcement of a linear progression through a narrative
- Default templates that are poorly designed and result in uninspired presentations
Bad PowerPoint is hated.
The Case of the Defense
PowerPoint is a tool, not a process
PowerPoint is a tool.
Michael: “We’ll ask PowerPoint.” Oscar: “Michael, this is a presentation tool.” Michael: “You’re a presentation tool…”Michael Scott & Oscar Martinez (The Office, Season 4 – Episode 4, “Money”)
PowerPoint, as a tool, really isn't so bad.
It is basically a blank canvas. The slide paradigm of PowerPoint/Keynote and other presentation tools is a very useful one for business communication. When leveraged properly, the structure inherent in slides is an effective means of communicating ideas. The mixture of text and visuals that PowerPoint is designed to deliver allows us to communicate directly to both visual and non-visual thinkers.
But learning to craft a powerful presentation, and then to successfully present it, is more than filling out a PowerPoint template. And it can be a challenge.
The challenge arises from the multi-disciplinary nature of creating and delivering a great presentation. It demands of us high-level skills across a great breadth of disciplines. Design skills (taste!), storytelling skills, data literacy and numeracy, structured thinking, passion and charisma; to name a few.
To successfully harness this set of disciplines requires a process.
In the SlideHeroes course we teach a 4-step process for creating a presentation:
1. The WHO: Identify who your audience is (thinking deeply about who really makes decisions, how they make them, how they like to consume information etc.)
2. The WHY: Determine why you are speaking with your audience. In nearly all cases this is to answer a question the audience has. Your job is to frame this question, and then answer it.
3. The What: Determine what your answer is to the question your audience has. This is the meat and potatoes of your presentation. This is your compelling, flawlessly constructed argument.
4. The HOW: Decide how best to communicate and deliver this argument.
We need a process.
We prepare for speeches, not business updates
The vast majority of PowerPoint presentation how-to books, seminars, and courses focus on the moment we stand-up in front of the crowd and deliver our speech.
The problem with this is that we are usually sitting down.
Garr Reynolds has coined the term slideument to describe what he believes is the unnatural combination of slides and documents.
Slides are slides.
Documents are documents.
They aren't the same thing. Attempts to merge them result in what I call the "slideument" (slide + document = slideument).
Much death-by-PowerPoint suffering could be eliminated if presenters clearly separated the two in their own minds before they even started planning their talks.
Best-selling Author of PresentationZen
This line of reasoning assumes you are designing for a talk. A 'conference room' speech.
How many speeches to 20+ people did you give last year? I am lucky to give one or two (they are fun, but uncommon).
The reality for most non-sales professionals is that the PowerPoint 'presentations' we create and give are usually to small groups of people.
We are not standing up, there is no auditorium. We might have several of these a week (or a day!). They are project updates, report deliverables, investment recommendations, performance evaluations.
They are focused on detail, data, and deep content. Our noses are a foot or two from the presentation. We require high fidelity, not conference style TED Talks.
The context of business meetings (small groups, detail focused) has a profound effect on the style of the presentation we need to give.
Our preparation is focused on style, not substance
Presentation training materials tend to focus on the delivery of a presentation, not on the content creation.
While advice on how to present is helpful, advice on what to present (and how to create it) is crucial.
Focusing on the moment of the presentation itself misses where the real magic happens: the act of preparing the presentation itself. It is where the thinking is done; where bad ideas are rejected, and good ideas are beaten into a comprehensible structure and narrative that communicates what you are trying to say.
Instead of worrying about what joke to tell, or where to put your hands, instead worry about whether you understand what problem or question you are answering for you audience.
Focus on deeply and directly addressing the question or problem. Move away from broad generalities. Move towards specificity. There is no such thing as a presentation topic. There are problems and answers. Provide answers with tight, logical structure, facts and data (with a little drama and storytelling mixed in). Use presentation tools to help. We offer presentation training.
Closing Arguments: Creating Fantastic PowerPoint Presentations
PowerPoint is a flawed tool.
However, our approaches to identifying the types of presentations we need to be giving and how to develop those presentations are even more deeply flawed.
In fact PowerPoint is a vastly superior paradigm for business communication than Word or other 'document' production tools.
Best-selling Author of PresentationZen
There is no question that PowerPoint has been at least a part of the problem because it has affected a generation. It should have come with a warning label and a good set of design instructions back in the ’90s. But it is also a cop out to blame PowerPoint — it’s just software, not a method.
Want to create a great presentation? Don't worry about which new presentation tool you need to buy to replace PowerPoint. Instead, focus on:
- The power of structure
- The art of telling a story
- The science of persuading your audience with facts
- The harmony of minimalist design, designed to support, not distract
- Finally, the drama of your performance
Our goal for SlideHeroes is to make a profound difference in people's ability to create stunningly effective and impactful presentations.
The kinds of presentations we are asked to give everyday.